- Drugs List
- Therapeutic Indications
- Precautions and Warnings
- Pregnancy and Lactation
- Side Effects
Oral formulations of standard release doxazosin.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Dysfunctional voiding of urine
Initial dose: 1mg daily.
If necessary, increase dose after one or two weeks of therapy to 2mg, and then in further increments of 2mg, to the maximum dose of 16mg daily.
Benign prostatic hypertrophy
Initial dose: 1mg daily.
If necessary, increase dose after one or two weeks of therapy to 2mg, and then in further increments of 2mg, to the maximum dose of 8mg daily.
Children aged 12 to 18 years:
Initial dose: 1mg daily.
If necessary, increase dose after one or two weeks of therapy to 2mg, and then in further increments of 2mg, to the maximum dose of 16mg daily (rarely needed).
Children aged 6 to 12 years:
Initial dose: 500micrograms once daily.
If necessary, increase dose at weekly intervals to 2mg to 4mg.
Dysfunctional voiding (unlicensed)
Children aged 12 to 18 years:
Initial dose: 1mg daily.
If necessary, double dose at monthly intervals according to response to 2mg to 4mg daily up to a maximum of 8mg daily.
Children aged 4 to 12 years:
Initial dose: 500micrograms daily.
If necessary, increase dose at monthly intervals according to response; maximum 2mg daily.
Patients with Renal Impairment
Doxazosin is not dialysable.
Children under 4 years
Chronic urinary tract infections - if treating benign prostatic hyperplasia
History of postural hypotension
Upper urinary tract congestion - if treating benign prostatic hyperplasia
Urolithiasis - if treating benign prostatic hyperplasia
Precautions and Warnings
Children aged 4 to 18 years
Glucose-galactose malabsorption syndrome
Hypotension - if treating benign prostatic hyperplasia
Left ventricular failure with low filling pressure
Advise ability to drive/operate machinery may be affected by side effects
Benign prostatic hyperplasia: Exclude prostate carcinoma before treatment
Some brands contain Sunset Yellow (E110) - can trigger allergic reactions
Some formulations contain lactose
Monitor blood pressure
Advise patient that postural hypotension may occur
Intraoperative Floppy Iris Syndrome has been reported in cataract surgery
Seek immediate medical attention if priapism occurs
Use low starting dose to avoid postural effects
May affect urine test results
Not licensed for all indications in all age groups
Advise patient not to take NSAIDs unless advised by clinician
Hypotensive effects may be potentiated by alcohol
Pregnancy and Lactation
Doxazosin is contraindicated during pregnancy.
In animal studies doxazosin crosses the placenta. Doxazosin has demonstrated no teratogenic effects in animal testing, but at extremely high doses (300 times the maximum recommended human dose) reduced foetal survival was observed. Briggs (2011) states that reduced foetal survival has been observed in rabbits at 20 times therapeutic dose and delayed postnatal development in rat pups at 8 times the therapeutic dose during perinatal and postnatal periods.
As there are no adequate or well-controlled studies in pregnant women, the safety of doxazosin during pregnancy has not been established. Schaefer (2007) comments that inadvertent use of the doxazosin is no reason for termination of pregnancy or for invasive procedures.
The use of all medication in pregnancy should be avoided whenever possible; particularly in the first trimester. Non-drug treatments should also be considered. When essential, a medication with the best safety record over time should be chosen, employing the lowest effective dose for the shortest possible time. Polypharmacy should be avoided. Teratogens taken in the pre-embryonic period, often quoted as lasting until 14 to 17 days post-conception, are believed to have an all-or-nothing effect. Where drugs have a short half-life, and when the date of conception is certain, this may allow women to be reassured where drug exposure has occurred within this time frame. Further advice may be available from the UK National Teratology Information Service (NTIS) and through ToxBase, available via password on the internet ( www.toxbase.org ) or if this is unavailable at the backup site ( www.toxbasebackup.org ).
Doxazosin is contraindicated during breastfeeding.
Animal studies have shown that doxazosin accumulates via a possible concentration mechanism in breast milk to 20 times that of the maternal blood plasma.
Although no human reports to date are catalogued, presence and accumulation in human milk should be anticipated due to the animal study outcomes. The manufacturers recommend to stop breastfeeding when treatment with doxazosin is necessary and advice from LactMed, via TOXNET states that an alternative drug may be preferred especially whilst nursing a newborn or preterm infant. Information on LactMed also states that the pharmacological similar drug prazosin does not affect serum prolactin concentration in patients with hypertension. The prolactin level in a mother with established lactation may not affect her ability to breastfeed. Schaefer (2007) comments that doxazosin should not be taken during breastfeeding. If treatment has begun weaning is not necessary, however therapy should be changed to an antihypertensive of choice, including an acceptable calcium antagonist or, if really indicated, an ACE inhibitor with a low transfer dosage via breast milk. Hale recommends doxazosin is used with extreme caution and no paediatrics concerns have been reported via the milk.
Neonates, infants born prematurely, those with low birth weight, those with an unstable gastrointestinal function or who have serious illnesses may require special consideration. For any infant, if a drug is prescribed to the nursing mother, it should be at the lowest practical dose and for the shortest time. When drug administration is unavoidable and breastfeeding is to continue, minimisation of exposure of the infant to the drug may sometimes be achieved by timing the maternal doses to just after a feeding episode. Infants exposed to drugs via breast milk should be monitored for unusual signs or symptoms. Interactions between the drug received by the infant from the mother's milk and medication prescribed for the infant should also be considered, for example, when the drug given to the infant may prevent metabolism of the drug received via breast milk.
Specialist advice is available from the UK Drugs in Lactation Advisory Service at https://www.midlandsmedicines.nhs.uk/content.asp?section=6&subsection=17&pageIdx=1
Advise patients that their ability to drive or use machines may be impaired, particularly at the start of treatment.
Advise patients how to avoid symptoms resulting from postural hypotension and what measures to take should they develop. The hypotensive effects may be exaggerated by alcohol ingestion.
Advise patients on the possibility of allergic responses as some formulations contain the excipient E110, known inducer of allergic responses (especially in those with asthma).
Advise patients not to purchase NSAIDs unless on medical advice.
Advise patients the initial dose may be taken at bedtime to minimise first dose postural hypotension.
Abnormal liver function tests
Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome
Respiratory tract infection
Urinary tract infections
Effects on Laboratory Tests
Doxazosin may influence plasma renin activity and the urinary excretion of vanillylmandelic acid.
It is strongly recommended that the UK National Poisons Information Service be consulted on cases of suspected or actual overdose where there is doubt over the degree of risk or about appropriate management.
The following number will direct the caller to the relevant local centre (0844) 892 0111
Information may be obtained if you have access to ToxBase the primary clinical toxicology database of the National Poisons Information Service. This is available via password on the internet ( www.toxbase.org ) or if this is unavailable at the backup site ( www.toxbasebackup.org ).
Last Full Review: June 2013
Drugs During Pregnancy and Lactation: Treatment Options and Risk Assessment, 2nd edition (2007) ed. Schaefer, C., Peters, P. and Miller, R. Elsevier, London.
Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation: A Reference Guide to Fetal and Neonatal Risk, 9th edition (2011) ed. Briggs, G., Freeman, R. and Yaffe, S. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia.
Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference, 37th edition (2011) ed. Sweetman, S. Pharmaceutical Press, London.
Medications and Mothers' Milk, 14th Edition (2010) Hale, T. Hale Publishing, Amarillo, Texas.
Summary of Product Characteristics: Cardura tablets 1mg. Pfizer Ltd. Revised November 2016.
Summary of Product Characteristics: Cardura tablets 2mg. Pfizer Ltd. Revised November 2016.
Summary of Product Characteristics: Doxadura 1mg tablets. Discovery Pharmaceuticals Ltd. Revised May 2010.
Summary of Product Characteristics: Doxadura 2mg tablets. Discovery Pharmaceuticals Ltd. Revised May 2010.
Summary of Product Characteristics: Doxadura 4mg tablets. Discovery Pharmaceuticals Ltd. Revised May 2010.
Summary of Product Characteristics: Doxazosin 1mg tablets. Aurobindo Pharma - Milpharm Ltd. Revised May 2011.
Summary of Product Characteristics: Doxazosin 2mg tablets. Aurobindo Pharma - Milpharm Ltd. Revised May 2011.
Summary of Product Characteristics: Doxazosin 4mg tablets. Aurobindo Pharma - Milpharm Ltd. Revised May 2011.
Summary of Product Characteritics: Doxazosin 8mg tablets. Ennogen Pharma Ltd. Revised November 2017.
The Renal Drug Handbook. 3rd edition. (2009) ed. Ashley, C and Currie, Radcliffe Publishing Ltd, Abingdon.
NICE - Evidence Services
Available at: www.nice.org.uk
Last accessed: 29 June 2017.
US National Library of Medicine. Toxicology Data Network. Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed).
Available at: https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?LACT
Doxazosin. Last revised: September 29, 2009
Last accessed: June 20, 2013.
Already a member? Log in
Medscape UK | Univadis prescription drug monographs & interactions are based on FDB Multilex Content
FDB Disclaimer : FDB Multilex is intended for the use of healthcare professionals and is provided on the basis that the healthcare professionals will retain FULL and SOLE responsibility for deciding what treatment to prescribe or dispense for any particular patient or circumstance.