Saxagliptin with metformin oral
- Drugs List
- Therapeutic Indications
- Precautions and Warnings
- Pregnancy and Lactation
- Side Effects
Tablets containing saxagliptin with metformin
Oral combination treatment of type 2 diabetes
Treatment of type 2 diabetes as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycaemic control in patients inadequately controlled on their maximal tolerated dose of metformin alone or those already treated with combination of saxagliptin and metformin.
Treatment of type 2 diabetes in combination with other medicinal products used for the treatment of diabetes including insulin when diet, exercise and stable dosage of insulin and metformin alone do not provide adequate glycaemic control.
For patients inadequately controlled on maximal tolerated dose of metformin monotherapy
The usual starting dose should provide saxagliptin doses as 2.5mg twice daily (5mg total daily dose) plus the dose of metformin already taken.
For patients switching from co-administration of saxagliptin and metformin
The dose should be initiated at the dose of saxagliptin and metformin already being taken.
For patients inadequately controlled on dual combination therapy with insulin and the maximal tolerated dose of metformin, or, for patients controlled on triple combination therapy of insulin, and metformin plus saxagliptin as separate tablets
The usual starting dose should provide saxagliptin doses as 2.5mg twice daily (5mg total daily dose) plus the dose of metformin already taken. When used in combination with insulin, a lower dose of the insulin may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia.
For patients inadequately controlled on dual combination therapy of a sulfonylurea and metformin, or for patients switching from triple combination therapy of saxagliptin, metformin and a sulfonylurea taken as separate tablets
The starting dose should provide saxagliptin doses as 2.5mg twice daily (5mg total daily dose), and a dose of metformin similar to the dose already being taken. When used in combination with a sulfonylurea, a lower dose of the sulfonylurea may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia.
(See Dosage; Adult).
Patients with Renal Impairment
Dose for renally impaired patients is determined by Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR). 60 to 89 GFR ml/minute Metformin: Maximum daily dose is 3g. Dose reduction may be considered in relation to declining renal function. Saxagliptin: Maximal total daily dose is 5mg. 45 to 59 GFR ml/minute Metformin: Maximum daily dose is 2g. The starting dose is at most half of the maximum dose. Saxagliptin: Maximal total daily dose is 5mg. 30 to 44 GFR ml/minute Metformin: Maximum daily dose is 1g. The starting dose is at most half of the maximum dose. Saxagliptin: Maximal total daily dose is 2.5mg.
Children under 18 years
Recent myocardial infarction
Renal impairment - glomerular filtration rate below 30ml/minute
Precautions and Warnings
Immunosuppressed transplant recipients
Patients over 65 years
History of cardiac failure
History of pancreatitis
Renal impairment - glomerular filtration rate 30 to 59 ml/minute
Not suitable for treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis
Not suitable for treatment of Type 1 diabetes mellitus
Reduce dose in patients with moderate renal impairment
Advise patient dizziness may affect ability to drive or operate machinery
Advise patient to take precautions to avoid hypoglycaemia whilst driving
Test vit B12 levels if deficiency is suspected or risk factors are present
Exclude pregnancy prior to initiation of treatment
Monitor renal function prior to initiating treatment
Monitor for development of lactic acidosis
Monitor renal function 3 to 6 monthly in elderly patients
Monitor renal function 3- 6 monthly if renal function is borderline normal
Monitor renal function annually in patients with normal renal function
Monitor skin changes
Advise patient to report new or worsening signs of cardiac failure
Advise patient to report symptoms of low vitamin B12 levels
Advise patients to report symptoms of acute pancreatitis immediately
Risk of pancreatitis
Discontinue 48 hours before elective surgery with general anaesthesia
Advise patient to seek advice at first indications of pregnancy
Discontinue if lactic acidosis is suspected
Discontinue if pancreatitis occurs
Discontinue if severe hypersensitivity reactions occur
Pregnancy confirmed: Change patient to insulin treatment
Advise patient not to take St John's wort concurrently
Advise patient to avoid alcohol during treatment
Patient to inform DVLA if fitness to drive impaired or hypoglycaemic risk
Lactic acidosis can occur due to metformin accumulation. To reduce the incidence of this occurring, patients should be assessed for risk factors associated with the development of lactic acidosis and monitored regularly. Symptoms of lactic acidosis include acidotic dyspnoea, abdominal pain, hypothermia and coma. A diagnosis of lactic acidosis should be considered in the presence of non-specific symptoms such as muscle cramps, digestive disorders, abdominal pain or severe asthenia. Lactic acidosis is also indicated by decreased blood pH, plasma lactate levels above 5 mmol/L and an increased anion gap and lactate pyruvate ratio. If lactic acidosis is suspected, discontinue treatment and hospitalise the patient immediately. Risk factors for lactic acidosis include: poorly controlled diabetes, ketosis, prolonged fasting, excessive alcohol intake, hepatic impairment and any condition associated with hypoxia.
Patients who develop laboratory abnormalities or clinical illness (especially vague and poorly defined illness) should be evaluated promptly for evidence of ketoacidosis or lactic acidosis. Evaluation should include serum electrolytes and ketones, blood glucose and, if indicated, blood pH, lactate, pyruvate, and metformin levels. If acidosis occurs treatment with saxagliptin with metformin must be stopped immediately and other appropriate corrective measures initiated.
Intravascular administration of iodinated contrast agents can lead to renal failure which has been associated with lactic acidosis in patients receiving metformin. Saxagliptin with metformin therapy should be discontinued prior to, or at the time of the test and not reinstated until 48 hours afterwards and only after renal function has been re-evaluated and found to be normal.
Saxagliptin with metformin therapy should be discontinued 48 hours before elective surgery with general, spinal or epidural anaesthesia. Treatment should not usually be resumed earlier than 48 hours afterwards and only after renal function has been re-evaluated and found to be normal.
Pregnancy and Lactation
Saxagliptin with metformin is contraindicated in pregnancy.
There is no data from the use of saxagliptin during pregnancy. Animal studies have shown reproductive toxicity at high doses. The potential risk for humans is unknown.
Metformin is generally considered to present a low risk when used during pregnancy and animal data generally do not indicate harmful effects on pregnancy, embryonal or foetal development, parturition or postnatal development. Metformin does cross the placenta, although it has been shown to be non-teratogenic in the majority of studies. One reference, however, suggests that metformin may be associated with growth retardation and hyperbilirubinaemia. Rare cases of neural tube defects and malformations of the heart and eye have been seen in animals though studies in pregnant women indicate a low risk to the foetus At the time of writing, current NICE guidelines on the treatment of diabetes during pregnancy recommend that metformin may be used as an adjunct or alternative to insulin in the pre-conception period and during pregnancy where the likely benefits from improved glycaemic control outweigh the potential for harm and informed consent is obtained from the mother. Metformin is not recommended for the treatment of diabetes in pregnancy as it does not provide adequate maternal glycaemic control and insulin therapy is preferred.
Detailed guidance on the treatment of diabetes during pregnancy is available from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) at https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/CG63
Insulin is the treatment of choice for both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes during pregnancy as it provides better control of maternal blood glucose compared to oral hypoglycaemics. It is believed that human insulin and insulin analogues do not cross the placenta, however there may be endogenous carrier proteins allowing passage of insulin to the embryo during early gestation; animal insulin is believed to cross the human placenta. The foetus produces its own insulin once insulin-secreting cells in the foetal pancreas become differentiated at the end of the first trimester.
Human insulin is considered safe to use during pregnancy and extensive experience with human insulin during pregnancy does not indicate any embryotoxic potential. Human insulin is often the first line treatment for diabetes and the benchmark used when comparing the safety of other insulins during pregnancy.
Infants of diabetic mothers are at an increased risk of congenital abnormalities, the rate of which appears to be related to maternal glycaemic control during the first trimester. Careful control of maternal blood glucose is required throughout pregnancy. Good maternal glycaemic control during labour and birth is important in preventing adverse neonatal outcomes including neonatal hypoglycaemia and respiratory stress.
The use of all medication in pregnancy should be avoided whenever possible; particularly in the first trimester. Non-drug treatments should also be considered. When essential, a medication with the best safety record over time should be chosen, employing the lowest effective dose for the shortest possible time. Polypharmacy should be avoided. Teratogens taken in the pre-embryonic period, often quoted as lasting until 14 to 17 days post-conception, are believed to have an all-or-nothing effect. Where drugs have a short half-life, and when the date of conception is certain, this may allow women to be reassured where drug exposure has occurred within this time frame. Further advice may be available from the UK National Teratology Information Service (NTIS) and through ToxBase, available via password on the internet ( www.toxbase.org ) or if this is unavailable at the backup site ( www.toxbasebackup.org ).
Saxagliptin with metformin is contraindicated in breastfeeding.
It is unknown whether saxagliptin is excreted in human breast milk. Animal studies have shown excretion of saxagliptin and/or metabolite in milk, a risk to the nursing infant cannot be excluded.
Metformin is excreted in breast milk although data indicates that infant exposure is low. Metformin has occasionally been detected in low-levels in the serum of breastfed infants although studies have found no adverse effects in infants breastfed by women taking metformin. LactMed (via ToxNet) recommends that caution be used in mothers with newborn and premature infants, and infants with renal impairment. Briggs and Schaefer both agree that metformin appears in breast milk at low concentrations and that it is considered compatible for use in breastfeeding mothers. LactMed (via ToxNet) states that maternal metformin levels are reasonably constant and therefore timing of breastfeeding with respect to dose is of little benefit. Current NICE guidelines state that women with pre-existing type 2 diabetes who are breastfeeding can resume or continue to take metformin immediately following birth. The manufacturer, however, recommends that the use of metformin should be avoided during breastfeeding.
Neonates, infants born prematurely, those with low birth weight, those with an unstable gastrointestinal function or who have serious illnesses may require special consideration. For any infant, if a drug is prescribed to the nursing mother, it should be at the lowest practical dose and for the shortest time. When drug administration is unavoidable and breastfeeding is to continue, minimisation of exposure of the infant to the drug may sometimes be achieved by timing the maternal doses to just after a feeding episode. Infants exposed to drugs via breast milk should be monitored for unusual signs or symptoms. Interactions between the drug received by the infant from the mother's milk and medication prescribed for the infant should also be considered, for example, when the drug given to the infant may prevent metabolism of the drug received via breast milk.
Specialist advice is available from the UK Drugs in Lactation Advisory Service at https://www.midlandsmedicines.nhs.uk/content.asp?section=6&subsection=17&pageIdx=1
Advise patient to report symptoms of acute pancreatitis immediately.
Advise patient to avoid alcohol and alcohol containing medications.
Advise patient to report new or worsening signs of cardiac failure.
Advise patient to report symptoms of low vitamin B12 levels.
Advise patients that their ability to drive or operate machinery may be impaired.
Advise patient to take precautions to avoid hypoglycaemia when driving.
Advise patient to report to DVLA if there is a risk of hypoglycaemia, or if fitness to drive may be impaired due to diabetes complications. Guidance can be found by accessing Gov.uk website.
Abnormal liver function tests
Decreased vitamin-B12 absorption
Upper respiratory tract infection
Urinary tract infections
It is strongly recommended that the UK National Poisons Information Service be consulted on cases of suspected or actual overdose where there is doubt over the degree of risk or about appropriate management.
The following number will direct the caller to the relevant local centre (0844) 892 0111
Information may be obtained if you have access to ToxBase the primary clinical toxicology database of the National Poisons Information Service. This is available via password on the internet ( www.toxbase.org ) or if this is unavailable at the backup site ( www.toxbasebackup.org ).
Last Full Review Date: October 2014
Drugs During Pregnancy and Lactation: Treatment Options and Risk Assessment, 2nd edition (2007) ed. Schaefer, C., Peters, P. and Miller, R. Elsevier, London.
Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation: A Reference Guide to Fetal and Neonatal Risk, 9th edition (2011) ed. Briggs, G., Freeman, R. and Yaffe, S. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia.
Joint Formulary Committee. British National Formulary (online) London: BMJ Group and Pharmaceutical Press. Accessed on 08 October 2014.
Medications and Mothers' Milk, 14th Edition (2010) Hale, T. Hale Publishing, Amarillo, Texas.
NICE Clinical Guideline 63. Diabetes in Pregnancy: Management of Diabetes and its Complications from Pre-conception to the Postnatal Period. Issue Date: March 2008 (reissued July 2008).
Summary of Product Characteristics: Komboglyze 2.5 mg/850 mg to 2.5 mg/1000 mg Tablets. Bristol Myers Squibb-AstraZeneca EEIG. Revised June 2018.
US National Library of Medicine. Toxicology Data Network. Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed).
Available at: https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?LACT
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Last accessed: 21 July 2022
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