Sodium chloride oral formulations
- Drugs List
- Therapeutic Indications
- Precautions and Warnings
- Pregnancy and Lactation
- Side Effects
Oral formulation of sodium chloride
Sodium chloride deficiency - prophylaxis and treatment
Treatment in children should only be prescribed under the supervision of a paediatric specialist.
Dosage can be adjusted if necessary according to clinical need and after plasma sodium monitoring.
40 to 80 mmol of sodium daily, given as divided doses.
1 month to 18 years
1 to 2 mmol per kg daily in divided doses. Higher doses of 3 to 5 mmol per kg daily in divided doses may be needed in severe depletion.
3 to 4 mmol in 100 ml of breast milk or 2 mmol in 100 ml of formula milk.
In infants and children sodium chloride must be added and thoroughly mixed into the drink, breast milk or formula feed immediately before administration.
In adults a maximum rate of administration of 10 to 12 mmol per litre of body water per 24 hour period or 18 mmol per litre per 48 hour period should be observed.
Decompensated cardiac failure
Precautions and Warnings
Restricted sodium intake
Some formulations contain more than 1mmol (23mg) sodium per dose
Not all available brands are licensed for all age groups
Some formulations contain hydroxybenzoate
Ensure patient has adequate fluid intake
Monitor periodically for signs of fluid or electrolyte imbalance
Use with caution when administering in conditions where normal electrolyte balance may be disturbed e.g additional loss through diuretic therapy or additional sodium intake through other sources such as medication or intravenous fluids.
During the first few days after birth, there is a physiological reduction of extracellular fluid volume as the infant adjusts to extra-uterine life. Hyponatraemia may reflect water retention rather than sodium deficiency, and treatment should be undertaken by monitoring adjustment of water balance rather than administration of sodium chloride.
Pregnancy and Lactation
Sodium chloride in pregnancy is usually considered safe.
However, caution should be exercised in pre-eclampsia.
The use of all medication in pregnancy should be avoided whenever possible; particularly in the first trimester. Non-drug treatments should also be considered. When essential, a medication with the best safety record over time should be chosen, employing the lowest effective dose for the shortest possible time. Polypharmacy should be avoided. Teratogens taken in the pre-embryonic period, often quoted as lasting until 14 to 17 days post-conception, are believed to have an all-or-nothing effect. Where drugs have a short half-life, and when the date of conception is certain, this may allow women to be reassured where drug exposure has occurred within this time frame. Further advice may be available from the UK National Teratology Information Service (NTIS) and through ToxBase, available via password on the internet ( www.toxbase.org ) or if this is unavailable at the backup site ( www.toxbasebackup.org ).
Sodium chloride during breastfeeding is usually considered safe.
Neonates, infants born prematurely, those with low birth weight, those with an unstable gastrointestinal function or who have serious illnesses may require special consideration. For any infant, if a drug is prescribed to the nursing mother, it should be at the lowest practical dose and for the shortest time. When drug administration is unavoidable and breastfeeding is to continue, minimisation of exposure of the infant to the drug may sometimes be achieved by timing the maternal doses to just after a feeding episode. Infants exposed to drugs via breast milk should be monitored for unusual signs or symptoms. Interactions between the drug received by the infant from the mother's milk and medication prescribed for the infant should also be considered, for example, when the drug given to the infant may prevent metabolism of the drug received via breast milk.
Specialist advice is available from the UK Drugs in Lactation Advisory Service at https://www.midlandsmedicines.nhs.uk/content.asp?section=6&subsection=17&pageIdx=1
Decreased lachrymal secretion
It is strongly recommended that the UK National Poisons Information Service be consulted on cases of suspected or actual overdose where there is doubt over the degree of risk or about appropriate management.
The following number will direct the caller to the relevant local centre (0844) 892 0111
Information may be obtained if you have access to ToxBase the primary clinical toxicology database of the National Poisons Information Service. This is available via password on the internet ( www.toxbase.org ) or if this is unavailable at the backup site ( www.toxbasebackup.org ).
Last Full Review Date: March 2016
Summary of Product Characteristics: Sodium Chloride 1 mmol/ml Oral Solution. Viridian Pharma Ltd. Revised July 2015
Summary of Product Characteristics: Syrisal 1 mmol/ml Oral Solution. Syri Limited t/a Thame Laboratories. Revised September 2016
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Medscape UK | Univadis prescription drug monographs & interactions are based on FDB Multilex Content
FDB Disclaimer : FDB Multilex is intended for the use of healthcare professionals and is provided on the basis that the healthcare professionals will retain FULL and SOLE responsibility for deciding what treatment to prescribe or dispense for any particular patient or circumstance.