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Clinical Summary

Does T2D Modify the Association Between Glucosamine and Dementia Risk?


  • Habitual use of glucosamine was significantly associated with a reduced risk of dementia, and this association was mediated by the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D).

Why This Matters

  • Growing evidence has demonstrated an association between habitual glucosamine use and T2D.
  • However, the effect of habitual use of glucosamine on the risk of dementia is still unknown.

Study Design

  • This prospective cohort study included 495,942 participants (age, 37-73 years) using data from the UK Biobank (2006-2010).
  • Primary outcome: incidence of dementia.
  • Secondary outcome: Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia.
  • Funding: National Natural Science Foundation of China and Scientific Research Foundation for Scholars of Hangzhou Normal University.

Key Results

  • Of 495,942 participants, 401,444 (80.94%) were using glucosamine supplements and 94, 498 (19.05%) were not.
  • During a median follow-up of 11 years, 6831 dementia events were reported, including 1790 events of Alzheimer’s disease and 923 events of vascular dementia.
  • Habitual glucosamine use was linked to a significantly lower risk of dementia (adjusted HR [aHR] 0.87; 95% CI 0.82 to 0.93).
  • Glucosamine users vs non-users had a lower risk of incident vascular dementia (aHR 0.82; 95% CI 0.69 to 0.98).
  • No significant association was observed between glucosamine use and Alzheimer’s disease risk (aHR 0.97; 95% CI 0.86 to 1.08).
  • Glucosamine use was associated with a lower risk of dementia in patients with T2D over the follow-up (aHR 0.79; 95% CI 0.67 to 0.93).


  • Observational design.
  • Risk of unmeasured confounding.